Research and development progress of the hottest e

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Research and development progress of electronic paper and electronic ink

the research and development of electronic paper and electronic ink has gone through more than 20 years with the teams of Lanzhou University and Harbin Institute of technology. Electronic paper also plays a key role in the RFID applications that have become popular in recent years. For example, the birth of electronic tickets, which combines the two, has a high exposure rate in the near future

It has been more than 20 years since the research and development of electronic paper and electronic ink. In the 1970s, Panasonic first published the electrophoretic display technology, and Xerox also began to study it at that time. However, due to the shortcomings of short display life, instability, difficulty in colorization and so on, the experiment was once interrupted. At the end of the 20th century, the American e-ink company (which was established in 1997 by Lucent, Motorola and several venture capital companies to develop electronic paper) invented electrophoretic ink (also known as electronic ink) using electrophoretic technology, which greatly promoted the development of this technology. At present, Xerox, Kodak, 3M, Toshiba, Motorola, Canon, Epson, Ricoh, IBM and other international famous companies are involved in electronic paper

the research and development of electronic paper and electronic ink can be basically divided into:

· in 1975, Nick sheridon, a Parc researcher at Xerox, first proposed the concept of electronic paper and electronic ink

· in April, 1996, MIT Bell Laboratories successfully manufactured the prototype of electronic paper

· in April, 1997, e-ink was established and made every effort to study the commercialization of electronic paper. In May, 1999, e-ink launched an electronic paper called instant for outdoor advertising

· in November 2000, e-ink and Lucent Technologies officially announced that they had successfully developed the first curlable electronic paper and electronic ink

· in May 2001, e-ink cooperated with toppanprinting to announce the use of Toppan's filter technology to produce color electronic paper

· in June 2001, e-ink announced that McClelland had launched the "ink-h-motion" technology, which can display moving images on electronic paper. At the same time, Macy, a large department store in the United States, announced that smartpaper was used for billboards in its stores

· the first color electronic paper appeared at the International Book Fair in Tokyo in March 2002

IBM launched "electronic newspaper"

maybe you don't realize that "electronic paper" has invaded people's lives for many years. For example, SIM card and subway magnetic card are the specific manifestations of two kinds of electronic paper - they can be recorded into data, rewritten and read repeatedly. In terms of the most basic characteristics, they are no different from traditional paper. In fact, the initial germination of electronic paper is to replace the purpose of traditional paper

Around 1999, IBM exhibited a "electronic newspaper" model at the largest newspaper exhibition in the United States. Technically, it is an "electronic matrix", which is not different from the display principle of liquid crystal. In this IBM model, an electronic display layer is embedded in the middle of the reading splint. With the pre input content, users can read various text and image information through this electronic display layer

this invention of IBM has attracted the attention of all sectors of society at once, and many major American newspapers have expressed great interest in it. Among them, including the New York Times and the Washington Post, and "e-reading" is considered to be of "epoch-making" significance to newspapers, books and other publishing industries, because in terms of saving printing costs, recyclable use, and shortening publishing time, Electronic newspapers have revolutionary improvements - "you can read any newspaper or only read topics of interest anywhere in the world, and the downloaded content will remain fresh as broadcast on radio and television". As the strategy design manager of IBM and the core developer of the "e-newspaper" model, Robert steinbugler commented on his masterpiece. In recognition of this idea put forward by IBM, "business week with the gradual introduction of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles in the market" specially awarded it the gold medal award of design that year

the first e-book came out

although "e-newspaper" has many advantages, it is a pity that due to the restrictions of the network at that time and including the use of them in a large car, this "e-newspaper" model of IBM finally did not really enter the commercial operation

however, this design idea was retained. After that, companies represented by IBM, eink, Philips, sipix, Fujitsu, Siemens and ntera are all focusing on this field, hoping that when the time is ripe, their products can be recognized by the most customers at the first time and seize the market opportunity. Harald Ritter, an expert from IFRA, an international newspaper and media printing organization, highly affirmed the enthusiasm of so many companies to study e-paper technology

heaven rewards diligence, and tireless efforts have finally yielded fruitful results. In 2004, the world's "first" commercial e-book produced by Sony with technical support from eink and Philips came out, which greatly shocked the entire IT industry. Sony's ebook, named librie, costs 40000 yen. Its length is 190 mm, width is 126 mm, and the thinnest part is only 9.5 mm thick. Its weight is 190 grams. The anti reflection display reaches 4 levels of gray and 800 × 600 resolution standard, 10MB storage space (about 10000 pages can be displayed at most), 2 AAA batteries, and Sony Memory stick. In order to prevent librie from becoming a "castle in the air", Sony specially opened a timebook town rental service for it

The launch of librie made scientists realize that the application environment of electronic paper products has become mature. After that, sharp, Toshiba, Panasonic, Hitachi, Fujitsu and other Japanese electronics companies followed suit. In a short year, e-book products suddenly bloomed everywhere. In terms of technology, electronic paper has also changed its previous defects such as low contrast and can only display black-and-white text. Using electrophoresis and other technologies, there have been products that can display color comics, low power consumption, large area, won't deform the font after folding, and are as soft as paper

as an example, Fujitsu's "world's first flexible color electronic paper with image memory function" launched on July 13 is a typical representative. The thickness of this "paper" is only 0.8mm, which can be used for the release of advertising information on large posters, railway stations or buildings, and small

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